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Fagonia cretica Tea - Virgin's Mantle

Cancer DNA in remission with Medicinal Properties of Leaf and Flower - Dhanvyaas

DR. AMIT NAKRA can be contacted through CALL / WHATSAPP : +919896172224 to answer all your Queries or you can send an Email to - AsmiConsultancyHerbals@gmail.com

WHAT RESEARCH SAYS -

Researchers have discovered the extracts found in Fagonia (cretica) indica have not only halted the spread of Breast Cancer Cells but also caused a limiting action on them within 24 hours of intake and thereby enabling the healing of Breast Cancer among the Folk women of Asian Countries. And moreover, it wont cause any sort of side-effects as it dosen't attacks the normal cells.

Click here to read useful Topics on Breast Cancer and General Health

IIMPORTANT : Its hereby requested you buy Fagonia (cretica) indica Tea only from an Authenticated Source because as per Ayurveda Literature there are certain very important recommendations mentioned in RAS SHASHTRA which must be followed in the process of Drying, Ratio Maintenance (Leaf : Flower : Bark) and Powdering of Fagonia (cretica) indica.

 › We have been issued a "Commercial Authentication Certificate" from ARI, (Department of Science & Technology) Govt of India as displayed below and our Patients can be assured of being provided with the Best and most Authentic Quality of Fagonia (cretica) indica.
 › We have also been issued "Importer-Exporter Code" by Directorate General of ForeignTrade, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Govt of India for exporting Fagonia (cretica) indica Tea along with other herbs.
 › We have also tied up with "DHL as our Air Cargo Express & Logistics Partner " for comprehensive door-to-door services to over 120,000 destinations in more than 220 countries and territories.

Click here to read the Research on CYTOTOXIC AND ANTITUMOUR POTENTIAL OF Fagonia (cretica) indica which shall be very helpful for all the patients of Breast Cancer :

http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/biology/issues/biy-07-31-1/biy-31-1-4-0610-8.pdf


http://eprints.aston.ac.uk/18276/

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0040152


Herbal Tea Cures Breast cancer


Below mentioned 5 Medicinal Herbs are recommended for Patients of Breast Cancer to enable a complete and successful remission -

Along with these 5 Herbal Medicines, following documentation too shall be enclosed in the Parcel for easy reference of patient -

 • Copy of Authentication Certificate of FAGONIA CRETICA issued by ARI (Govt of India)
 • Diet Regimen to be followed by Patients of Cancer
 • Method of Intake of all the Herbal Medicines
 • Copy of Organic Certification of Products


1) Fagonia (cretica) indica Tea - For Patients, daily dosage is 20 Gms per Day.

2) Organic Holy Basil Tablets
- 1 tablet twice a day.

Holy Basil decreases tumorigenicity and metastasis of aggressive human Breast cancerous cells. Its a medically proven antioxidant which fights very effectively against Cancer. Holy Basil Tablets are always included in all our medicine parcel for the ease of patients.

3) Organic Wheatgrass and Giloy Tablets
- 1 tablet twice a day.

Role of Wheatgrass in Breast Cancer : Wheatgrass helps in building a strong immune system, and the key to killing cancer cells is oxygen. To lead an aggressive fight against cancer the body needs to produce more oxygen. Wheatgrass contains Chlorophyll, which is considered the "blood of plants". The molecular structure of chlorophyll is similar to that of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Incorporating wheatgrass into the diet will help build and renew blood cells in the body and increase the oxygen available to fight the cancer cells. Chlorophyll and selenium also help build the immunity system. Furthermore, wheatgrass is one of the most alkaline foods known to mankind thus killing "cancer favoring envirnoment".

Role of Giloy in Breast Cancer : Tinospora cordifolia has incredible immune-boosting properties, and its one of the reasons why it is so effective against cancer. A strong immune system is better able to identify any cancerous cells and eliminate them before they have a chance to grown and spread. Tinospora contain a chemical called dichloromethane, which is known to poison and kill cancerous cells. Scientists have also found that Tinospora contain potent cancer-fighting antioxidants such as catalase, glutathione and superoxide dismutase thus enabling in the process of Remission with ease.


4) Organic Turmeric Powder
- to be taken in the night as 2 Gms daily with 100 ML of Lukewarm (Almond Milk) / (Coconut Milk) / (any Fat Free Milk if both Almond and Coconut are not available).

With its cell-penetrating ability, Turmeric can cleanse the body at the most vital level to prevent cancers and protect tissues from damage imposed by cancer causing agents. It also prevents cancer cells from damaging DNA and reduces the side effects of chemotherapy.


5) Organic Spirulina Powder - It has to be taken as 2 Gms daily with Fresh 1 Glass of Water.

Spirulina is superior to plant proteins in that it is about 60% protein and is a complete protein. The fat content of Spirulina is loaded with the healthy fats like GLA , EPA, DHA and ALA, which are important Omega 3's. It is a super source of B vitamins, minerals and many beneficial pigments like beta carotene and chlorophyll.
Here is how Spirulina benefits a patient of Breast Cancer :

a) Stimulates Natural Killer Cells and prevents breast cancer cells from growing.
b) It has been used in light therapy to target and kill breast cancerous cells
c) Greatly reduces free radicals
d) Keeps Breast cancer cells in permanent remission
e) Suppresses tumor growth by suppressing new blood flow to the tumor
f) Enhances cellular uptake of trace minerals like selenium
g) Inhibits the growth of viruses like Epstein Barr

Although effective in killing cancerous cells, chemotherapeutic agents also induce kidney toxicity. Spirulina helped protect the kidneys from being damaged by cisplatin, in a study published in the December 2006 issue of "Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology." The scientists also noted that spirulina did not decrease the effectiveness of chemo medication so its good in alleviating the side effects of chemo as well and it works in sync with Fagonia (cretica) indica Tea.

» Please do contact DR. AMIT NAKRA by sending an email - AsmiConsultancyHerbals@gmail.com or calling on +91 - 98961 - 72224 for all details regarding dispatching the Parcel of Fagonia (cretica) indica Tea, Indian Organic Turmeric Powder, Organic Wheatgrass + Giloy Tablet, Organic Spirulina Powder and Holy Basil Tablets at your address anywhere in world through DHL Express Cargo Service. Its received within 2-5 working days and email updates are sent every 12 hours with regard to the movement of Parcel. You can also track the movement of Parcel through waybill (issued by DHL) on www. DHL.com.

Fagonia (cretica) indica Tea is being widely known as a Herbal Treatment for Breast Cancer. For more details on the same please do read as follows -


According to traditional knowledge Fagonia (cretica) indica has medicinal potential especially against cancer and tumors. An aqueous decantation (A.D) of the plant is a popular remedy for cancer in indigenous system of medicine and similar research was carried out in Aston University along with Rusell Hall Hospital in UK. Now the patients who went through chemotherapy during their treatment of Breast Cancer, in some patients there was a huge drop in Hb levels. When the A.D. of Fagonia (Cretica) indica was given for a couple of days before the next course of chemotherapy it was quite impressive to observe that there was no change in the blood count (no myelo-suppression or reduction in the blood count or the Hemoglobin level) so there was no need of blood transfusion. Patient continued A.D of Fagonia (Cretica) indica during the rest of her treatment and showed excellent improvement. Her hair started growing back, skin color became normal and there was no need of blood transfusion over and above showed impressive improvement and regression of the Tumor.


In Western medicine, the focus is the eradication of the cancers cells once they have been diagnosed. Ayurveda is not a replacement for Western medicine. Once cancer has been diagnosed, all avenues of treatment, including conservative (allopathic) and complimentary approaches should be thoroughly investigated. Ayurveda will address prevention and underlying causative factors, while Western medicine will deal with the symptoms, which in some cases can be life-threatening. Through this Mail, we will discuss the cause, treatment, and prevention of Breast Cancer exclusively from the Ayurvedic perspective.

In Ayurveda, cancers are not treated solely as a physical condition. The relationship between mental, emotional, physical, and spiritual factors are all identified when treating cancer. The general definition of cancer in Ayurveda is when the cells have forgotten their memory of normal and proper function. They have lost the smirti value (cellular memory). Without the memory of proper function the cells have no rules.

In Ayurveda, the cause of all disease is termed pragya pradh which, when translated, means the mistake of the intellect: the intellect decides to see itself as separate from the underlying field of consciousness from which we all come. Quantum physics recognizes the existence of such a unifying field and Ayurveda recognizes that field as our own consciousness. It is the goal of Ayurveda to re-establish the experience of consciousness or silence in every cell in the body. Stress, pollution, lifestyle, chemotoxins, and fear are major factors that strip the silence of consciousness from our experience. When the silence is lost on a cellular level the cells become disconnected from their roots in consciousness. They lose their memory and begin to function at random in a survival fashion just to stay alive.

With a cancer diagnosis, a common treatment approach response is to attack the cancer as the enemy, visualizing cancer cells exploding, or killing them with radiation or chemotherapy. This approach does have its place and certainly should be investigated. But in Ayurveda the approach works on the basis of peace, not war. History has proven that for every war that has ever been fought, there comes a time to make peace and shake hands. The cancer cells are a part of the body that have lost their memory. They are not necessarily bad cells that must be destroyed, they are cells that have lost their way and need to be reconnected to their roots of consciousness. Overuse of antibiotics in the past 40 years is proof of what happens to cells when you try to kill them. Bacteria, in the name of survival, have become resistant to the once very lethal antibiotics. Cancer cells that are relentlessly sought after to be destroyed will also find ways to resist the attackers, and in many cases become stronger and more committed to their cause of survival. This is not to say there is never a need for chemotherapies.

The next expression of the mistake of the intellect is triggered by emotional constrictions that separate the mind and body in the name of survival. Fear is the first emotion we feel when we lose the experience of consciousness on a physical level. Consciousness, which of course is lively in every cell, is stored in the heart as a substance called ojas. Ojas is considered to be the physical expression of consciousness. This experience of consciousness is the only source of true happiness. When we lose it because of fear of getting hurt, the body employs the sympathetic nervous system's fight-or-flight response to protect the delicate feelings of the heart. These emotional constrictions manifest in the body physically by separating the consciousness (ojas) in the heart from the memory (smirti) of the cells. Again the cells begin to function at random. Depending on the kinds of stress, chemical exposure, and/or genetic susceptibility, Breast cancer or other related cancers can be the result.

Stress is probably the biggest factor in the loss of cellular memory. Stress has a powerful effect on physical and mental responses in the body and has recently been traced to be the cause of 80% of all disease, including cancer. Stress triggers stress-fighting hormones that can be produced 24 hours a day depending on the severity and duration of the stress. These stress-fighting hormones are degenerative and produce free radicals as waste products, which are believed to be the leading cause of aging, disease, cancer, and death. Stress also creates mental and muscular tension, a compromised blood supply, and an increase in waste production. All these factors curtail circulation and communication on a cellular level. If cells cannot get blood in and waste out effectively, then the communication to and from cells breaks down. Soon, the cells will lose their memory of normal function and will have to alter their programming in the name of survival. If gross cellular circulation is decreased, cells will begin to reproduce in an alternative method. If the genetic predisposition is cancer, or if exposure to environmental pollutants has been excessive, then cancer can be how an individual breaks down. In Ayurveda, this same cause can trigger a variety of symptoms, depending on individual genetic susceptibility.

Cause of Breast Cancer in Ayurveda Definition

In Caraka Samhita, Chapter XIII in Chikitsasthanam, eight types of abdominal disease or udara-roga are described. Typically Breast Cancer are caused by the accumulation of doshas (either vata, pitta, or kapha), or by intestinal obstruction (which is how four of the eight are described). It is clearly stated that Cancer arises from a weak digestive agni (power of digestion) and a resultant increase of malas (waste products). If food is unwholesome, as are processed, frozen, rancid, or improperly cooked foods, doshas accumulate, affecting prana (life force), apana (downward force), and agni (digestive force). Waste products build up, energy becomes depleted, and the passages of prana going up and malas (waste) going down and out becomes obstructed.


Excerpts from the Research:
Researchers from Aston University, Birmingham, and Russells Hall Hospital, Dudley, found that Fagonia (cretica) indica / Dhanvyas contains potent anti-cancer agents that act singly or in combination against the proliferation of cancer cells.

Laboratory tests showed they arrested the growth of cells within five hours of application and caused them to die within 24 hours and we are hereby providing the conclusion of Reasearch for your reference -

WHAT RESEARCH SAYS -

"Researchers have discovered the extracts found in Fagonia cretica have not only halted the spread of Breast Cancer Cells but also caused a limiting action on them thereby enabling the healing of Breast Cancer among the Folk women of asian countries"

Researchers at Aston University and Russells Hall Hospital in the United Kingdom have discovered an extract in a common herbal tea that may halt the spread of breast cancer.

The ingredient comes from a plant, fagonia cretica, also known as Virgon's mantlem. The plant has traditionally been used in parts of rural India and Pakistan to help people fight breast cancer. What had been dismissed as a folkloric remedy now seems to be true. What's more, men and women who drink the tea do not report the same side effects associated with other, more aggressive remedies advocated by modern medicine, like chemotherapy or radiation. Many people who choose to treat their cancers with those methods suffer from difficult, uncomfortable side effects, like hair and weight loss as well as a drop in blood count.

Helen Griffith and Armutul R. Carmichael led the study. They tested the plant extract and found that it killed cancerous cells in breast tissue without damaging the other, healthy cells.

Researchers hope to discover in the future what particular compound or element in the plant is responsible for its cancer-fighting success. Dr. Caitlin Palframann, a policy manager at the Breakthrough Breast Cancer, "Some of the most important cancer-fighting drugs are originally derived from plants."


INTRODUCTION

Following genotoxic stress, an intact DNA damage response (DDR) is necessary to eliminate lethal and tumorigenic mutations. The DDR is a network of molecular signalling events that control and coordinate DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. An impairment in the DNA damage response represents a double-edged sword, where on one side loss of repair mechanisms can drive tumorigenesis and on the other, can affect sensitivity to genotoxic chemotherapy.

The tumour suppressor protein, p53, plays a pivotal role in regulating the cellular response to stress and damage signals. Several of the cell signalling pathways involved in the DDR and cell differentiation converge with p53 and loss of p53 functionality is common in more than 50% of cancers. In response to stress signals, post-translational modifications of p53 such as phosphorylation, drive its nuclear translocation and subsequent target gene transcription. Normally, upon DNA damage, p53 is rapidly stabilised by the DNA damage sensor, ATM, via phosphorylation of serine-15 within the p53 N-terminus activation domain. Consequently, dissociation of the MDM2-p53 repressor complex, prevents monoubiquitination of p53 and its degradation. This in turn increases p53 half-life and activates its transcriptional program.

Important p53 transcriptional targets include cell cycle control genes such as p21 (WAF1/CIP1), 14-3-3σ and cyclin G, and pro-apoptotic genes such as BAX. The cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p21, is a direct regulator of the cell cycle, inducing growth arrest in G1-phase of the cell cycle by binding to and inhibiting the activity of cyclinD-CDK2/4 complexes. Increased transcription and translation of p21 prevents cyclinD-CDK2/4 mediated phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRb), thus, inhibiting E2F transcriptional activity and cell cycle progression to S-phase.

However, p53-independent growth arrest and cell death has also been observed following ionizing radiation and DNA damage (the cell death machinery governed by p53. Recently, it has been shown that in response to DNA damage, the transcription factor FOXO3a is vital to initiating growth arrest. Moreover, induction of DNA damage by ionizing radiation, activates FOXO3a and increases its nuclear translocation. The FOXO3a-dependent activation of Bim and Fas ligand expression is associated with induction of apoptosis, and is observed independently of p53, highlighting a potential FOXO3a-mediated response to DNA damage. As well as this, FOXO3a is a regulator of metabolic homeostasis, via its interaction with Akt and AMPk signaling pathways. Pharmacological modulation of these pathways has been shown to induce cell death in cancer cells via FOXO3a-dependent mechanisms.

Targeting the cell cycle to induce arrest pharmacologically is known to be effective in restricting tumour growth in vitro and in vivo, particularly in transformed cells that have an aberrant response to genotoxic and cellular damage. We have investigated the potential for Fagonia cretica to inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells via a DNA damage driven response. Fagonia cretica is a herbaceous plant found in arid, desert regions of Pakistan, India, Africa and parts of Europe. It is a common plant used in local medicine as a herbal tea to remedy breast cancer. However, mechanism(s) of action for Fagonia cretica extracts on breast cancer cells have not been investigated. Herein, we show that an aqueous extract of Fagonia cretica induces growth arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by inducing DNA damage and activation of p53 and FOXO3a.


DISCUSSION


In this study we report mechanisms of Fagonia cretica aqueous extract-induced cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells. Local medical practitioners use Fagonia cretica for treating a wide variety of ailments, including cancer. This substance is well tolerated and does not exhibit adverse effects like vomiting, diarrhea or alopecia, which are common side effects of standard cytotoxic therapy. To the authors' best knowledge, this study is the first time that cytotoxic activity towards human breast cancer cell lines has been described. Herein, we have shown that an aqueous extract of Fagonia cretica is able to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in wild type p53 MCF-7 and mutant p53 MDA-MB-231 cells, while only exerting a limited effect on primary HMEpC at high concentrations and extended treatment time. We have also demonstrated that cell cycle arrest may be associated with induction of DNA damage and in MCF-7 cells, via activation of the ATM/p53-mediated DNA damage response. Interestingly, the requirement of p53 activation is not essential for cytotoxicity, as we have shown with siRNA p53 knockdown in extract-treated MCF-7 cells, and the significant treatment effects on mutant-p53 MDA-MB-231 cells. In contrast, extract-induced cytotoxicity is shown to be dependent on induction of FOXO3a expression, in both cell types.

Fgaonia cretica action on Breast Cancer Cells

Induction of cell cycle arrest occurs in response to various stresses including DNA damage. Stabilisation and activation of p53 can occur as a result of serine-15 phosphorylation by ATM/ATR in the presence of DNA damage. This in turn allows for p53 nuclear translocation and activation of transcriptional targets such as p21 and BAX to regulate cell cycle control and apoptosis. According to our results, extract treatment of MCF-7 cells induced arrest in G1-phase of the cell cycle and triggered apoptosis, which may be controlled by p53-mediated transcription of the CDK-inhibitor p21 and pro-apoptotic BAX. This result is consistent with the literature on tamoxifen which describes G1-arrest induced by DNA damage in cancer cells. Blockade of extract-induced p53 expression using a phamacological inhibitor of ATM/ATR, caffeine, attenuated loss of cell viability in MCF-7 cells. This suggests activation of the DNA damage response is driving p53-mediated effects in extract-treated MCF-7 cells. Indeed, it was further shown that extract treatment may induce double strand breaks in MCF-7 cells, detectable by comet assay and by the presence of γ-H2AX, however, other forms of DNA damage can increase comet assay results and γ-H2AX expression. This DNA damage response pathway is well characterised and provides a potential mechanism by which extract treatment induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Mutations in p53 that generate a non-functional phenotype are common in tumours, and although frequency is lower in breast tumours than in other tumour types, mutant status is associated with a more aggressive disease and mediates tumour cell survival.

It is therefore important that drugs are developed that can specifically target cancer cells independent of their p53 status. We used siRNA against TP53 to knockdown p53 expression in p53 wild-type MCF-7 cells and then treated the cells with aqueous extract. Inhibition of p53 expression did reduce the cytotoxic effect of treatment but did not fully abrogate the loss of cell viability due to extract treatment. This suggests that p53 mediated cytotoxicity is an additional effect seen in cells that carry a functional form of p53 but is not vital to the treatment effect. We confirmed this effect in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, which carry a mutant, non-functional form of p53. Indeed, we demonstrated that extract-induced cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells is less than in MCF-7 cells but remains significant at 24h. It has been shown previously that cells can arrest in the G1-phase of the cell cycle independent of the p53-p21 axis, and also that apoptosis can be initiated without p53 activation. Extract-treated MDA-MB-231 cells also underwent G0/G1 arrest but induction was delayed until 24 hours providing further support for the notion that p53 expression in MCF-7 cells drives extract-induced growth arrest. It has been shown previously that p53 functionality governs kinetics of cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage thus providing a mechanism by which absence of p53 could delay onset of cell cycle arrest. It was evident that double strand breaks were induced in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells upon extract treatment suggesting a shared mechanism driving cell death. Indeed, it has been shown recently that in response to DNA damage, p53-mutant cells undergo p53-independent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, offering a significant therapeutic strategy for p53-mutant cancers.

Members of the forkhead class ‘O’ (FOXO) family of transcription factors have been implicated in tumorigenesis. In particular FOXO3a has been shown to function as a tumour suppressor in ERα-positive and negative breast cancers. It has also been reported recently that nuclear localisation of FOXO3a and subsequent transcriptional activity is a marker of good prognosis among breast cancer patients. As well as this, FOXO3a has been show to regulate cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage, via activation of transcriptional targets such as Bim, p27 and Fas-L . We report here that FOXO3a expression is increased in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in response to extract treatment. Furthermore, suppression of extract-induced FOXO3a expression using FOXO3 siRNA, attenuated cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells and completely abrogated cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells. Interestingly, levels of FOXO3a protein expression correlate with time points where significant DNA damage is exhibited, suggesting FOXO3a expression may be directly linked to DNA damage. This provides evidence for FOXO3a-dependent cell cycle arrest and death in breast cancer cells that works independently of p53 following extract treatment. Although FOXO3a involvement in oxidative stress and survival signal withdrawal-induced transcriptional activity is well documented, the role of FOXO3a in response to DNA damage, is relatively unclear. FOXO3a is activated as a survival response to energy depletion and can drive autophagy and apoptosis. Indeed, treatment with Fagonia cretica reduced ATP levels significantly in MDA-MB-231cells within 3 hours (data not shown). Energy depletion can occur as a result of excessive PARP activation due to DNA damage. Therefore, it is possible that DNA damage may induce a metabolic stress, which directly activates FOXO3a. Furthermore, FOXO3a driven transcription of DNA repair genes, including PARP, may further deplete cellular NAD+ and ATP and lead to cell death.

Why do HMEpC remain viable following extract treatment compared to MCF-7 or MDA-MB-231 cells? Cytotoxic agents are known to induce DNA damage in normal cells as well as cancer cells. However, fast growing cells are more susceptible to DNA damaging agents due to the greater probability of more sites being exposed on DNA within replicative cycles and, in addition, cancer cells frequently have defective repair pathways resulting in DNA damage being sustained. While normal cells may also up-regulate FOXO3a in response to energy depletion and DNA damage, they are less dependent on glycolytic metabolism than cancer cells. They may be less energetically challenged in the presence of Fagonia cretica because of the potential to use oxidative phosphorylation as an additional energy source.

CONCLUSION

Its been displayed above for the first time that an extract of Fagonia cretica induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in two phenotypically distinct breast cancer cell lines. Extract activity involves DNA damage and p53-induction but is not fully dependent on p53 functionality. In addition, extract treatment induces FOXO3a expression which may be attributed to DNA damage directly or induction of DNA repair pathways. We also demonstrated that FOXO3a expression is required for extract activity in the absence of functional p53. This provides a novel mechanism by which an aqueous extract of Fagonia cretica, used extensively in India and Pakistan, can kill breast cancer cells.

Citation: Lam M, Carmichael AR, Griffiths HR (2012) An Aqueous Extract of Fagonia cretica Induces DNA Damage, Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells via FOXO3a and p53 Expression. PLoS ONE 7(6): e40152. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040152

Editor: Pranela Rameshwar, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, United States of America

Received: April 6, 2012; Accepted: June 1, 2012; Published: June 27, 2012


Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Mohammed Shuwaikan, Birmingham University and Dr Marcus Cooke, Leicester University, for advice on the comet assay.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: ML HRG. Performed the experiments: ML. Analyzed the data: ML HRG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: HRG ARC. Wrote the paper: ML HRG.

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